Purwabhumi Kamulan

Purwabhumi BASAbali wiki.jpg
Name of Lontar
Purwabhumi Kamulan
Identification
Tattwa
Photo Reference
Location
Credit
Reference
Background information

    Summary


    In English

    Purwabhumi Kamulan means the origin of the universe. This lontar belongs to the Tattwa lontar group, which contains philosophical teachings. Specifically, this lontar contains the creation of the universe from Saivite perspective. Initially, there were only Bhatara and Bhatari forms (Shiva and his consort, namely Uma or Parvati) which were the two sources of initial strength. From the union between Bhatara and Bhatari, the gods, Panca Rsi, and Sapta Rsi and so on were created who were the first beings. Then, the world was created. It is also said that Ganga was created from sweat, and the ocean was created from salt that came out of the body. Then, God created the natural elements and heavenly bodies.

    After that, it is said that Bhatari Uma changed her form as Durga. From the hair on her body, Kala is created which is the source of evil in the world. With the power of her yoga, Goddess Durga created all the contents of the ocean. Lord Shiva then came down to earth as Bhatara Kala (Bhairawa) because he was attracted by the power of Bhatari Durga's vision. With the power of his yoga, Bhatara Kala Bhairawa created Kala. Humans are the food of Bhatara Kala. Humans that are eaten are those who are born in Wuku Carik (Wayang week in 30-week Balinese calendar system), those who are born male-female twins, those with five siblings, the only children in a family, and so on.

    Bhatara Kala then came down to the world to make a place of worship. Likewise Brahma, Wisnu and Iswara were ordered to descend into the world. Brahma became Brahmana, Vishnu as Bhujangga and Iswara as Rsi. Brahmin, Bhujangga and Rsi were given the task by Bhatara Kala to offer offerings to himself and Bhatari Durga and to treat ten kinds of defilements in humans. That was the beginning of humans worshiping God. Bhatara Kala and Bhatari Durga no longer eat humans. It seems that the terrible thing returns to its original state as Guru and Uma, back to the Shiva realm.

    Analyzed from the language, Purwabhumi Kamulan was written in the Middle Ages, because starting from the Middle Ages there was a division of the Brahmana, Bhujangga and Rishi priests. According to the theory of literary analysis, this Purwabhumi Kamulan lontar seems to be a form of literary work made to serve as a religious basis and reference in the classification of priests in medieval Bali. This classification is not found in literary works or inscriptions before the Middle Ages, or before the conquest by Majapahit.

    In Balinese

    Purwabhumi Kamulan mateges kawitan jagat. Lontar puniki ngranjing ring kelompok lontar Tattwa, sane madaging ajah-ajahan tattwa. Lontar puniki utamannyane maosin indik pangardin jagat saking perspektif Siwaisme. Kapertama, wantah wanten paragan Bhatara miwah Bhatari Siwa miwah Saktinida, inggih punika Uma wyakti Parwati pinaka kalih unteng bayu sane pinih mula. Saking panyikian Bhatara miwah Bhatari, metu watek dewata, Panca Rsi, Sapta Rsi miwah sane lianan pinaka sarwa prani sane kapertama. Wusan punika, jagate kakaryanang. Irika munggah taler indik Gangga sane metu saking kringet Ida, miwah sagara sane metu saking tasik anggan Ida. Raris, Ida ngardi panca mahabhuta tur planet-planet ring akasane.

    Wusan punika, kacaritayang Bhatari Uma nyukti rupan Ida dados Durga. Saking rambut anggan ida, metu sang Kala sane dados wit adharma ring jagate. Antuk kawisesan yogan ida, Batari Durga ngaryanin sami daging sagarane. Batara Siwa raris tedun ring jagate dados Batara Kala Bhairawa duaning Ida kapincut olih paneleng panyingakan ida Bhatari Durga. Antuk kawisesan yoagn ida, Batara Kala Bhairawa ngametuang Kala. Manusa inggih punika tetadahan Batara Kala. Manusa sane katadah inggih punika ipun sane embas ring Wuku Carik Wayang , ipun sane kembar buncing, ipun masameton lelima, ipun pianak tunggal, miwah sane lianan.

    Batara Kala raris tedun ring jagate tur makarya genah pangastawa. Kenten taler Batara Brahma, Wisnu miwah Iswara kautus tedun ring jagate. Batara Brahma dados Brahmana, Wisnu dados Bhujangga, Iswara dados Rsi. Brahmana, Bhujangga miwah Rsi kaicen titah olih Batara Kala mangda ngaturang sesajian kapining Ida miwah Batari Durga tur nglebur dasa mala ring manusa. Punika raris dados wit anake nyembah Widhi. Batara Kala miwah Batari Durga nenten malih nadah manusa. Rupan ida sane nakutin mawali malih sakadi dumunan dados Guru miwah Uma, mawali ring Siwaloka.

    Yening katilik saking basa sane kaanggen, Purwabhumi Kamulan karipta duk abad pertengahan, duaning ngawit jaman punika wenten kelompok pandita brahmana, bhujangga miwah resi. Manut teori analisis sastra, lontar Purwabhumi Kamulan puniki minab silih tunggil karya sastra sane kakaryanang pinaka dasar tattwa tur referensi bantihan soroh pandita duk Bali pertengahan. Kelompok-kelompok sakadi puniki nenten kapanggihin ring karya sastra utawi prasasti sadurung abad pertengahan, utawi sadurung pangrejeg Majapahit.

    In Indonesian

    Purwabhumi Kamulan berarti asal-usul alam semesta. Lontar ini termasuk kelompok lontar Tattwa, yang memuat ajaran filsafat. Secara spesifik, lontar ini memuat penciptaan alam semesta dari sisi Siwaisme. Pada awalnya, hanya terdapat wujud Bhatara dan Bhatari (Siwa dan Saktinya, yakni Uma atau Parwati) yang adalah dua sumber kekuatan awal. Dari penyatuan antara Bhatara dan Bhatari, terciptalah para dewata, Panca Rsi, dan Sapta Rsi dan sebagainya yang merupakan makhluk-makhluk pertama. Lalu, diciptakanlah dunia. Dikisahkan pula bahwa Gangga tercipta dari cucuran keringat, dan lautan tercipta dari garam yang keluar dari badan. Kemudian, Tuhan menciptakan elemen-elemen alam dan benda-benda langit.

    Setelah itu, dikisahkan bahwa Bhatari Uma merubah wujudnya sebagai Durga. Dari rambut pada badannya, terciptalah Kala yang menjadi sumber kejahatan di dunia. Dengan kekuatan yoganya, Dewi Durga menciptakan semua isi lautan. Dewa Siwa kemudian turun ke bumi sebagai Bhatara Kala (Bhairawa) karena tertarik oleh kekuatan pandangan Bhatari Durga. Dengan kekuatan yoganya, Bhatara Kala Bhairawa menciptakan Kala. Manusia adalah santapan Bhatara Kala. Manusia yang disantap adalah mereka yang lahir pada Wuku Carik (Wayang), mereka yang lahir kembar buncing, mereka yang bersaudara lima, anak tunggal, dan sebagainya.

    Bhatara Kala kemudian turun ke dunia membuat tempat pemujaan. Begitu pula Brahma, Wisnu dan Iswara diperintahkan turun ke dunia. Brahma menjadi Brahmana, Wisnu sebagai Bhujangga dan Iswara sebagai Rsi. Brahmana, Bhujangga dan Rsi diberi tugas oleh Bhatara Kala menghaturkan sesaji kepada dirinya dan Bhatari Durga dan meruwat sepuluh jenis kekotoran (manusia). Itulah permulaan manusia memuja Tuhan. Bhatara Kala dan Bhatari Durga tidak lagi menyantap manusia. Rupanya yang mengerikan kembali seperti semula sebagai Guru dan Uma, kembali ke alam Siwa.

    Dilihat dari bahasanya, Purwabhumi Kamulan ditulis pada abad pertengahan, sebab mulai abad pertengahan baru ada pembagian golongan pendeta brahmana, bhujangga dan resi. Secara teori analisis sastra, lontar Purwabhumi Kamulan ini tampaknya adalah suatu wujud karya sastra yang dibuat untuk dijadikan landasan religi dan acuan dalam penggolongan para pendeta di zaman Bali pertengahan. Penggolongan seperti ini tidak ditemukan dalam karya-karya sastra maupun prasasti sebelum abad pertengahan, atau sebelum penaklukan oleh Majapahit.

    Direct transcription/translation


    Bahasa Kawi/Kuno

    “Om purwa bhumi kamulan. Paduka Bhatari Uma mijil saking limo-limonira Bhatara guru. Mulaning hana Bhatari minaka somah Bhatara. Mayoga sira Bhatari, mijil ta sira dewata, Panca Resi, Sapta Resi, Kosika, sang Garga, Maitri, Kurusya, sang Pratanjala. Kosika wikan padyargha, sinapa dening Bhatara. Mijil ta sang hyang Kosika sakeng kulit sangkanira. Mijil ta sira sang Garga sakeng daging sangkanira. Mijil ta sira sang Maitri sakeng otot sangkanira. Mijil ta sanghyang Kurusya sakeng balung sangkanira. Mijil ta sang Pratanjala sakeng sumsum sangkanira. Genep isi ning bhuwana, apan sampun winastonan.”

    In English

    "Om Purwabhumi Kamulan. Goddess Uma emerged from the hands of Bhatara Guru (Shiva). At first there was only Bhatari Uma as Bhatara Shiva's partner. Then, Bhatari did yoga, and thus appeared Panca Rsi, Sapta Rsi, Kosika, Garga, Maitri, Kurusya, and Pratanjala. Kosika emerged from Lord Shiva's skin. Garga emerged from the flesh. Maitri emerged from his muscles. Kurusya emerged from his bones. Pratanjala emerged from its marrow. Thus the world was filled because it had received his blessing." [translated by expert]

    In Balinese

    Om Purwabhumi Kamulan. Dewi Uma metu saking tangan Bhatara Guru Siwa . Ring witnyane, wantah wenten Batari Uma pinaka saktin ida Batara Siwa. Raris, Bhatari malaksana yoga, metu Panca Rsi, Sapta Rsi, Kosika, Garga, Maitri, Kurusya, miwah Pratanjala. Sang Kosika metu saking kulit Batara Siwa. Sang Garga metu saking daging Ida. Sang Maitri metu saking otot ida. Sang Kurusya metu saking galih ida. Sang Pratanjala metu saking sumsum ida. Raris genep daging jagate duaning sampun kawastu olih Ida.

    kasalin basa olih ahli

    In Indonesian

    “Om Purwabhumi Kamulan. Dewi Uma muncul dari tangan Bhatara Guru (Siwa). Pada awalnya hanya ada Bhatari Uma sebagai pasangan Bhatara Siwa. Kemudian, Bhatari melakukan yoga, muncullah Panca Rsi, Sapta Rsi, Kosika, Garga, Maitri, Kurusya, dan Pratanjala. Sang Kosika muncul dari kulit Bhatara Siwa. Sang Garga muncul dari dagingnya. Sang Maitri muncul dari ototnya. Sang Kurusya muncul dari tulangnya. Sang Pratanjala muncul dari sumsumnya. Genaplah isi dunia karena telah mendapat restunya.” [diterjemahkan oleh ahli]

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