Kakawin

  • poetry written in the Old Javanese language, which was the literary language of Java from about the 9th. through the 15th. centuries. This same literary language was studied and written in Bali and is used today for readings and performances, often for ceremonial occasions such as cremations and odalans, but sometimes in recreational clubs. The meters of the kakawin poems are called wirama. Each wirama has a fixed pattern of long and short syllables, a pattern not found in Indonesian languages. Kakawin stanzas usually have four lines. Thematically, kakawin poems are usually concerned with the heroes of the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana. In Jimbaran kakawin is only performed during a ceremony, such as a cremation, outside a temple, never in a temple.
Andap
kakawin
Kasar
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Alus sor
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Alus mider
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Alus madya
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Alus singgih
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Mider
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Bali dataran dialect
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Bali aga dialect
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Usage Examples

Ibu tyang demen mekekawin di pura
No translation exists for this example.

⚙ Usage examples pulled from the Virtual Library


In Balinese:   [BA] Silih sinunggil kakawin sane pinih bawak inggih punika Banawa Sekar, lumrah kabawos Banawa Sekar Tanakung duaning kasurat olih Mpu Tanakung duk warsa 1351 Masehi.

In English:   The final chapter expresses regret of the poet for not being able to explain the grandeur of the ceremony as the king expected.

In Indonesian:   Bab terakhir menyatakan penyesalan penulis kakawin karena tidak dapat menjelaskan kemegahan upacara itu sebagaimana yang diharapkan baginda raja.
[[Word example text ban::[BA] Silih sinunggil kakawin sane pinih bawak inggih punika Banawa Sekar, lumrah kabawos Banawa Sekar Tanakung duaning kasurat olih Mpu Tanakung duk warsa 1351 Masehi.| ]]

In Balinese:   Wantah wenten 12 pada ring kakawin puniki, kapahpah dados tigang bab utawi sargah.

In English:   The final chapter expresses regret of the poet for not being able to explain the grandeur of the ceremony as the king expected.

In Indonesian:   Bab terakhir menyatakan penyesalan penulis kakawin karena tidak dapat menjelaskan kemegahan upacara itu sebagaimana yang diharapkan baginda raja.

In Balinese:   Dane ngaptiang mangda kakawin punika prasida katerima tur nyenengin ida sang prabu Hayam Wuruk sadurung kakawin punika kasalin marupa lontar.

In English:   He hoped that the kakawin would be received by the king and make him happy before the kakawin was later copied in the form of palm-leaf manuscript.

In Indonesian:   Dia berharap agar kakawin itu diterima oleh raja dan membuar beliau senang sebelum kakawin itu disalin dalam bentuk lontar.

In Balinese:   Zoetmulder (1983) nyalin kakawin puniki ring aksara Latin tur taler kasalin basa ring basa Belanda lan Indonesia.

In English:   The final chapter expresses regret of the poet for not being able to explain the grandeur of the ceremony as the king expected.

In Indonesian:   Bab terakhir menyatakan penyesalan penulis kakawin karena tidak dapat menjelaskan kemegahan upacara itu sebagaimana yang diharapkan baginda raja.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki kasurat olih Mpu Tanakung (nenten pesengan asli) daweg Ida Sang Prabu Hayam Wuruk ngamargiang yadnya Sraddha (Maligia) ageng mantuka ring ratu niang ida (Dyah Rajapatni Gayatri) ring alun-alun puri Majapahit.

In English:   This Kakawin was written by Mpu Tanakung (not his real name) when King Hayam Wuruk committed a great holy sacrifice (Sraddha) addressed to his late grandmother, Dyah Rajapatni Gayatri, at Majapahit palace square.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini ditulis oleh Mpu Tanakung (bukan nama asli) tatkala Raja Hayam Wuruk melakukan sebuah korban suci besar (Sraddha) yang ditujukan kepada mendiang neneknya, Dyah Rajapatni Gayatri, di alun-alun istana Majapahit.

In Balinese:   Niki dados kaarsayang duaning Kakawin Bharatayuddha inggih punika pujasastra (sasuratan sastra panyumbung) mantuka ring Raja Jayabhaya.

In English:   This is understandable because Kakawin Bharatayuddha is a pujasastra (praise literary work) for King Jayabhaya.

In Indonesian:   Ini dapat dimaklumi karena Kakawin Bharatayuddha adalah sebuah pujasastra (karya sastra pujian) bagi Raja Jayabhaya.

In Balinese:   Tlataran ring Kakawin Bharatayuddha ngedas pateh saking tlataran payudan sane munggah ring Mahabharata kasurat olih Ida Bhagawan Krishna Dvaipayana Vedavyasa sawetara 5.000 warsa sane sampun lintang.

In English:   At the end of this story there is the story of revenge by Asvatthama (in the Sauptika Parwa section), but this kakawin does not tell about the destruction of the city of Dwaraka.

In Indonesian:   Di bagian akhir kisah ini terdapat kisah pembalasan dendam oleh Asvatthama (dalam bagian Sauptika Parwa), namun kakawin ini tidak mengisahkan tentang hancurnya kota Dwaraka.

In Balinese:   Ring panguntat carita kakawin puniki wenten satua indik pangwales dendam olih Asvatthama (mungah ring Sauptika Parwa), kewanten kakawin puniki nenten nyaritayang indik uwugnyane panegara Dwarawati.

In English:   At the end of this story there is the story of revenge by Asvatthama (in the Sauptika Parwa section), but this kakawin does not tell about the destruction of the city of Dwaraka.

In Indonesian:   Di bagian akhir kisah ini terdapat kisah pembalasan dendam oleh Asvatthama (dalam bagian Sauptika Parwa), namun kakawin ini tidak mengisahkan tentang hancurnya kota Dwaraka.

In Balinese:   Minabne, Kakawin puniki wantah saduran langsung saking cakepan aslinnyane sane mabasa Sanskerta.

In English:   Another interesting plot is the story of the revival of Pariksit who died in the womb.

In Indonesian:   Yang tak kalah menarik dari kakawin ini adalah kisah mengenai dihidupkannya kembali Pariksit yang meninggal di dalam kandungan.

In Balinese:   Sane tan kalah becik saking kakawin puniki wantah satua indik Ida Sang Pariksit sane seda ring tengahing waduk ibunnyane tur kaurip malih olih Ida Sri Krishna.

In English:   Another interesting plot is the story of the revival of Pariksit who died in the womb.

In Indonesian:   Yang tak kalah menarik dari kakawin ini adalah kisah mengenai dihidupkannya kembali Pariksit yang meninggal di dalam kandungan.

In Balinese:   Carita sane munggah ring Kakawin Bharatayuddha kakawitin antuk pangrawuh Ida Sri Krishna minakadi dutan para Pandawa pacang ngedum panegara sareng Korawa.

In English:   This story is also written in Hariwangsa and Bhagawata Purana.

In Indonesian:   Kisah ini juga dikisahkan dalam Hariwangsa dan Bhagawata Purana.

In Balinese:   Kakawin Bharatayuddha puniki inggih punika reringkesan Bhisma Parwa, Drona Parwa, Karna Parwa, Salya Parwa nyantos Swargarohana Parwa.

In English:   This story is also written in Hariwangsa and Bhagawata Purana.

In Indonesian:   Kisah ini juga dikisahkan dalam Hariwangsa dan Bhagawata Purana.

In Balinese:   [BA] Kakawin Bharatayuddha nyaritayang indik payudan selami plakutus lemeng ring rana Kuruksetra.

In English:   At the end of this story there is the story of revenge by Asvatthama (in the Sauptika Parwa section), but this kakawin does not tell about the destruction of the city of Dwaraka.

In Indonesian:   Di bagian akhir kisah ini terdapat kisah pembalasan dendam oleh Asvatthama (dalam bagian Sauptika Parwa), namun kakawin ini tidak mengisahkan tentang hancurnya kota Dwaraka.
[[Word example text ban::[BA] Kakawin Bharatayuddha nyaritayang indik payudan selami plakutus lemeng ring rana Kuruksetra.| ]]

In Balinese:   Kaon pisan, Kakawin Bharatayuddha nenten muat ajah-ajahan suci lan pinih utama puniki kewanten akehan midartayang indik payudan kemanten.

In English:   Unfortunately, Kakawin Bharatayuddha does not contain this most important teaching and is more focused on warfare.

In Indonesian:   Sayang sekali, Kakawin Bharatayuddha tidak memuat ajaran penting ini dan lebih terfokus pada peperangan saja.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki kakaryanin olih Mpu Panuluh daweg pamerintahan Raja Jayabhaya saking Panjalu (1135-1157 Masehi).

In English:   Another interesting plot is the story of the revival of Pariksit who died in the womb.

In Indonesian:   Yang tak kalah menarik dari kakawin ini adalah kisah mengenai dihidupkannya kembali Pariksit yang meninggal di dalam kandungan.

In Balinese:   Ring manggala (pangawit) kakawin puniki wenten pada atur-aturan majeng ring Paduka Raja Jayabhaya.

In English:   This story is also written in Hariwangsa and Bhagawata Purana.

In Indonesian:   Kisah ini juga dikisahkan dalam Hariwangsa dan Bhagawata Purana.

In Balinese:   Kawentenan Kakawin Bhomantaka puniki ngayuktiang indike kawentenan kasusastraan ring krama Jawi purwa sampun luhur, utamannyane ring masa kaprabon Ida Sang Prabu Airlangga.

In English:  

In Indonesian:   Adanya Kakawin Bhomantaka membuktikan bahwa tingkat kesusastraan masyarakat Jawa kuno sudah tergolong tinggi pada zaman Airlangga.

In Balinese:   Bhomantaka taler kawastanin Bhomakawya, inggih punika silih sinunggil kakawin pinih purwa lan pinih dawa ring sejarah kasusastraan Jawi purwa.

In English:   Bhomantaka is also known as Bhomakawya, the oldest and the longest kakawin compilation in the history of old Javanese literature.

In Indonesian:   Bhomantaka disebut juga Bhomakawya, sebuah kakawin tertua dan terpanjang dalam sejarah kesusastraan Jawa kuno.

In Balinese:   Winangun antuk 1.492 pada, kakawin puniki nyaritayang indik payudan Ida Bhatara Krishna ngalawan Bhaumasura, utawi Bhoma.

In English:   Consisting of 1,492 verss, this kakawin narrates around the battle between Lord Krishna and Bhaumasura, or the demon Bhoma.

In Indonesian:   Terdiri atas 1.492 bait, kakawin ini mengisahkan peperangan Sri Krishna dengan Bhaumasura, atau Bhoma.

In Balinese:   Wenten akudang pahpahan kakawin puniki sane malianan saking sejarah asline, minab duaning salin-basa sane nenten cepil.

In English:   There are some parts of this kakawin which are quite different from the original account, perhaps because of innacuracy of translation.

In Indonesian:   Ada beberapa bagian kakawin ini yang berbeda dengan kisah sejarah aslinya, mungkin karena faktor akurasi penerjemahan.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki kasalin antuk basa Jawi purwa (Kawi) olih Mpu Yogiswara duk masan kaprabon Sang Prabu Airlangga.

In English:   The compilation is translated into old Javanese (Kawi) language by Mpu Yogiswara during King Airlangga’s reign.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Jawa Kuno (Kawi) oleh Mpu Yogiswara pada zaman Airlangga.

In Balinese:   Makehan carita ring Kakawin Ramayana pateh sakadi Walmiki Ramayana sane asli, yadiastun wenten pasalin basannyane sane iwang.

In English:   Most of the narrations in Kakawin Ramayana are similar to the original version of Valmiki Ramayana, though there are some mistakes in translation.

In Indonesian:   Sebagian besar kisah dalam Kakawin Ramayana sama dengan versi Valmiki Ramayana aslinya, walaupun terdapat kekeliruan dalam penerjemahan di beberapa bagian.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki kabantih antuk pitung kanda, inggih punika Bala Kanda, Ayodhya Kanda, Aranyaka Kanda, Kiskinda Kanda, Sundara Kanda, Yudha Kanda lan Uttara Khanda.

In English:   Its kakawin version is divided into seven kandas, or parts, namely Bala Kanda, Ayodhya Kanda, Aranyaka Kanda, Kiskinda Kanda, Sundara Kanda, Yudha Kanda and Uttara Khanda.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin Ramayana terbagi menjadi tujuh Kanda atau bagian, yakni Bala Kanda, Ayodhya Kanda, Aranyaka Kanda, Kiskinda Kanda, Sundara Kanda, Yudha Kanda dan Uttara Khanda.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki mawit saking satua Ida Sang Prabu Dasaratha sane maduwe istri tiga tur oka lanang patpat.

In English:   Kakawin Ramayana starts with a narration about King Dasaratha who has three wifes and four sons.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini dimulai dari kisah Maharaja Dasaratha yang memiliki tiga istri dan empat putra.

In Balinese:   Kakawin Ramayana maosin indik palampah Sri Rama sane muputang urip Asura Rawana.

In English:   Kakawin Ramayana is anarration about Lord Rama who kills an evil king, Ravana.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin Ramayana menceritakan tentang sejarah Sri Rama yang membinasakan Asura Ravana.

In Balinese:   Kakawin Ramayana wantah salinan saking Walmiki Ramayana sane mabasa Sansekerta.

In English:   This kakawin is a translation of Valmiki Ramayana.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini adalah terjemahan dari Valmiki Ramayana.

In Balinese:   Lantas di pustakane ane lenan cara Kakawin Negarakertagamane, ditu masih sinah pesan kacritayang utsahan Raja Hayam Wuruke mesikang kadaton Nusantara ane madasar baan darma tur madue tetujon ayu.

In English:   Kuruksetra, fight till die, war against their guru (teacher/preceptor), relatives and their own family to uphold dharma (truth) in the world.

In Indonesian:   Para anggota organisasi ini mengenakan seragam militer tetapi tidak seperti militer yang sudah diakui di Indonesia.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki taler madaging wawengkon Majapahit ring Jawi lan pulau-pulau lianan, lan wenten taler catetan indik pamargin Sang Prabu Hayam Wuruk ngiderin Pulau Jawine.

In English:   According to descriptions in this kakawin, the capital of Majapahit was successfully rediscovered and reconstructed by the historians and archeologists.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini juga memuat tentang wilayah kekuasaan Majapahit Jawa dan di luar Jawa, dan catatan tentang perjalanan Raja Hayam Wuruk berkeliling Pulau Jawa.

In Balinese:   Nagarakretagama inggih punika kakawin pujasastra majeng ring Sang Prabu Hayam Wuruk, kasurat olih Mpu Prapanca ring warsa 1365.

In English:   Nagarakretagama is a compilation of praises to King Hayam Wuruk written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365.

In Indonesian:   Nagarakretagama adalah sebuah kakawin pujian kepada raja Hayam Wuruk oleh Mpu Prapanca yang ditulis pada tahun 1365.

In Balinese:   Mangkin, pasalin-basa kakawin puniki sampun katah pisan ring makudang-kudang basa tur sampun akeh kawacen.

In English:   One of those version is kept in Leiden and its copy is now available at Gedong Arca Museum, Gianyar.

In Indonesian:   Kini, terjemahan kakawin ini telah banyak beredar dalam berbagai bahasa dan amat dikenal-luas.

In Balinese:   Kakawin puniki ngenenin indik wewidangan kutaraja Majapahit sane luwih tur rame ritatkala masa jayan ipun.

In English:   Instead, it is an alias.

In Indonesian:   Kakawin ini memuat tentang deskripsi ibu kota Majapahit yang megah dan ramai pada masa kejayaannya.

In Balinese:   Manut sasuratan ring Kakawin puniki, kutaraja Majapahit ring Trowulan prasida kapanggih tur kawangun malih olih para kawikan sejarah lan arkeologe.

In English:   This kakawin contains descriptions of Majapahit capital metropolis which was splendid and busy during its heydays.

In Indonesian:   Berdasarkan uraian dalam kakawin inilah ibu kota Majapahit di Trowulan berhasil ditemukan dan direkonstruksi oleh para sejarawan dan arkeolog.

In Balinese:   [BA] Kakawin Nitisastra katarka kasurat olih Dang Hyang Nirartha, yadyastun sira pangawi sane pastika nenten kauningin.

In English:   What caused Kakawin Nitisastra to be said to have been written by Dang Hyang Nirartha was because this kakawin was found together with Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Indonesian:   Apa yang menyebabkan Kakawin Nitisastra disebut-sebut ditulis oleh Dang Hyang Nirartha adalah karena kakawin ini ditemukan berbarengan dengan Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.
[[Word example text ban::[BA] Kakawin Nitisastra katarka kasurat olih Dang Hyang Nirartha, yadyastun sira pangawi sane pastika nenten kauningin.| ]]

In Balinese:   Kakawin Nitisastra puniki madaging tata titi dados manusa, caciren anak suputra tur kuputra, swadharmaning sisya, anak sane marabian, tur swadharmaning sang wiku.

In English:   What caused Kakawin Nitisastra to be said to have been written by Dang Hyang Nirartha was because this kakawin was found together with Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Indonesian:   Apa yang menyebabkan Kakawin Nitisastra disebut-sebut ditulis oleh Dang Hyang Nirartha adalah karena kakawin ini ditemukan berbarengan dengan Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Balinese:   Napi mawinan Kakawin Nitisastra katarka kasurat olih Dang Hyang Nirartha duaning kakawin puniki embas sinarengan sareng Kakawin Nirartha Prakerta.

In English:   What caused Kakawin Nitisastra to be said to have been written by Dang Hyang Nirartha was because this kakawin was found together with Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Indonesian:   Apa yang menyebabkan Kakawin Nitisastra disebut-sebut ditulis oleh Dang Hyang Nirartha adalah karena kakawin ini ditemukan berbarengan dengan Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Balinese:   Napi mawinan Kakawin Nitisastra katarka kasurat olih Dang Hyang Nirartha duaning kakawin puniki embas sinarengan sareng Kakawin Nirartha Prakerta.

In English:   What caused Kakawin Nitisastra to be said to have been written by Dang Hyang Nirartha was because this kakawin was found together with Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Indonesian:   Apa yang menyebabkan Kakawin Nitisastra disebut-sebut ditulis oleh Dang Hyang Nirartha adalah karena kakawin ini ditemukan berbarengan dengan Kakawin Nirartha Prakreta.

In Balinese:   Daging makakalih kakawin puniki tan banget matiosan.

In English:   The contents of the two kakawin do not differ much.

In Indonesian:   Isi kedua kakawin ini tidak berbeda jauh.

In Balinese:   Akeh para pangawi narka kakawin puniki kasurat daweg Ida Dang Hyang Nirartha meneng ring Gelgel.

In English:   Then, there is also a newer copy in the Balinese script from the Bali Provincial Culture Office, completed with meanings in alus singgih Balinese.

In Indonesian:   Kemudian, ada juga salinan yang lebih baru dalam aksara Bali dari Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali, lengkap dengan artinya dalam bahasa Bali halus.