A A. Raka Sidan's real name is A.A. Gede Raka Partana. He is a songwriter and Balinese pop singer who was born June 27, 1979. He studied at UNHI Denpasar and produced a number of albums, including "Suud Memotoh" (2005), "At-Pada Ngalih Makan" (2007), "Pak Boss" (2009), "Song Brerong" (2012), "Kenceng" (2015). The songs contain a lot of moral messages and social criticism wrapped in humorous nuances. +
AG Pramono was born in Negara, Bali on March 23, 1973. He has been involved in theatre and literary arts since 1990. He founded Sanggar Susur Jembrana in 1991. His writings in the form of short stories, poems and cultural articles have been published in several media. A number of his poems can be found in the following anthologies: Poetry 19 (1995), Kidung Kawijayan (1996), Detak (1997), Indonesian Poetry Anthology (KSI) Jakarta in 1997, Serambi Hening (1998) and Stopping Short Stories in Rumahmu (2014). Since 1993, he has been active in Bali Experimental Theater and in 1998 participated in the Komunitas Kertas Budaya. He is currently working as a journalist in one of the local newspapers in Bali and lives in a small house named Serambi Hening in Loloan Timur, Jembrana, Bali. +
Adrian Vickers is an Australian author, historian and professor of Southeast Asian Studies at the University of Sydney. He writes a blog on Indonesian subjects. He has studied and documented Gambuh dance traditions, Panji (prince) stories, and other Indonesian art and cultural subjects as well as historiography and colonialism. He has a BA and PhD from the University of Sydney, is the Professor of Southeast Asian Studies (Personal Chair) and Director of the Asian Studies Program. Vickers' most recent book, The Pearl Frontier, co-written with Julia Martínez, won the University of Southern Queensland History Book Award at the 2016 Queensland Literary Awards. +
Agung Bawantara was born in Klungkung on January 30, 1968. He graduated from the Faculty of Animal Husbandry at the University of Mataram, NTB. He has been writing poetry since the 1980s in Bali Post, Karya Bakti, Nova, Berita Buana, Swadesi, Media Indonesia, etc. His collected poems can be found in Sahayun (1994), and in Klungkung: Tanah Tua, Tanah Cinta (2016). He initiated the Denpasar Film Festival. He has also written short stories, children's stories, fairy tales, and novels. +
Agung Wiyat S. Ardhi was born in Puri Anyar Keramas Gianyar on February 3, 1946. He passed away on 24 Februay 2020. He graduated with a degree from ASTI and a Bachelor of Hindu Religion and worked as a teacher at PR Saraswati Gianyar. He also served as Head of the SPG Saraswati Gianyar, was Head of Saraswati Gianyar High School, was a Gianyar Regency Associate Member. As well he was a member of the Gianyar Regency Wija Kusuma Award Selection Team, the Gianyar Regency Extension Team, the Gianyar Regency Gita Main Supervisory Team, and the Gianyar Kabupatén Gianyar Development Team. In addition, he is also well-known as a Drama Gong player / dancer. He received Rancage Literary Awards in 2001 for a work entitled "Gang Girang Sisi Pakerisan" and in 2010 for his services to the field of Modern Balinese literature. In 2015, he received a Widya Pataka from the Governor of Bali for a Balinese play entitled "Bogolan" . +
Gus Teja is a flute (Suling) maestro from a small village near Ubud, Bali. He is the youngest of four children from his parents I Nyoman Kadjil and Ni Wayan Darpini. He began playing the flute while attending elementary school, yet spent a lot of time during this period practicing the gamelan (Balinese traditional instrument). As the years progressed, his interest in wind instruments increased. This sparked the obsession in learning all there was about wind instruments from around the world. Since childhood Gus Teja is excited to be a flute player. Flute is an instrument with melodious voice that represents the voice of peace. He feels free when everytime playing flute as well as a form of meditation in his devotion to God. Gus Teja continued to challenge himself by creating new instruments to go along with his passion of flutes. Ranging from whittled wood instruments to full fledged bamboo flutes. He is always experimenting with creating new works of music by incorporating musical instruments from modern instruments with traditional sounds. After years of patience and practice, Gus Teja finally formed a world music band named Gus Teja World Music. Musical works that have been created not only represent an expression of his feeling from the deepest part of his heart, but also reflects peace, serenity, and a strong bond of brotherhood regardless of cultural background or a different race. Gus Teja said, “Music is universal … therefore through music let’s bring peace and love to the world. +
Aldwin is a senior analyst for AkarAsia. He recently graduated with a master’s degree in International Development Studies at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs, specializing in private sector development. He received his B.A. in International Affairs from the University of Colorado at Boulder, focusing on Southeast Asian politics and economy. +
Alit S.Rini was born and live in Denpasar with the name Ida Ayu Putu Alit Susrini. She wrotes poem from 1980 and published it in Bali Post newspaper and afterwards become her workspace since 1988. Then she was promoted to hold culture, religion, education, opinion desk and 1998 as performance editor, and lastly she held opinion desk and retired in 2015. "Karena Aku Perempuan Bali" (Since I am a Balinese Woman) 2003 is her single poem compilation. Her poem was compiled in book "Cinta Disucikan Kehidupan Dirayakan", "Bali Living in Two World" (2002), "Dendang Denpasar Nyiur Sanur" (2016), "Klungkung: Tanah Tua Tanah Cinta" (2017). in September 2017 a compilation of her poem, Inferior was published collaborated with Nyoman Wirata entitled "Pernikahan Puisi". +
Anak Agung Gde Mandera Erawan (Agung Bangli) is a traditional dance maestro from Puri Kaleran Peliatan, Ubud. He was born in artist family, son of Gung Kak Mandera, maestro of traditional music the founder of Kelompok Musik and Tari Gunung Sari and a dancer mother. Gung Kak Mandera was one of artist of Bali that travel arround in Europe and performed in Paris in 1930s. Almost all of countries had already visited by Gung Aji to perform Balinese dance to the world. it can be said that his life was dedicated for traditional dance and music arts of Bali. Maintain and preserve it to keep this culture existed. He inherited his late father role to lead group of Gunung Sari Peliatan, which hold a performance in every week in Balerung Peliatan. Legong Nandira is Tari Legong with male dancer is one of his creations. +
Anak Agung Gde Rai or usually called as Agung Rai, born in Peliatan, Ubud, on July 17th, 1955. He is a humanist (cultural practitioner) and an artist who has big role in preserving and promoting arts of Indonesia, particularly Bali. He is the founder of ARMA (Agung Rai Museum of Art). The poverty during his childhood motivated him to change their family life to make it better by continuously work hard. When he was young, he has ever become “merchant” of artistic goods for tourists in Bali. Agung Rai has a dream to become a teacher, but he has to burry it since cant afford the tuition. Then, he learned to paint. But, he realized his skill is yet sufficient as painter. Otherwise, he took a course of English and became a tour guid. From his interaction with the tourists, he got sense of business to try as seller of artistics goods made by his neighbors in his hometown. Since then, he is becoming a merchant in arround Sanur, Kuta until Padangbai. As a merchant, his sense of business and arts was developed. Then he mad friend with many arts collectors. He followed his friend to be a collector of maestro’s artwork. From a collector, he became a currator for artwork exhibition. Such as, in 1989, Agung Rai went to Japan and took a hundred of artworks from fifty painters that joined a group of Sanggar Seniman Agung Rai (Agung Rai Artists Group). This paintings then was shown in Japan for two months. Anxiety and worry for his country’s cultural preservation mainly in field of arts make him obssessed to establish a museum and arts galery. Then, with wonderful effort of him, in June 9th 1996, ARMA Museum officially opened by Prof. Dr. Ing. Wardiman Djojonegoro while at that time have position as Minister of Education and Culture. ARMA is one of museums with most complete collection in Indonesia. From classical artwork until contemporary, even artwork of local artist and other countries. Moreover, ARMA periodically held an exhibition of artworks. The popularity of ARMA is masively increasing since it often held various cultural event such as music performance, theatre, providing bookroom with various collection for visitors, held seminar of culture and art. Events in ARMA mostly in international scale and often were hold by various artworkers and culture from many countries. With various arrangement of these kind of event, ARMA achieved predicate as most popular museum and the best museum in Indonesia based on tourist as how it was compiled by world travelling site, TripAdvisor. For his effort to preserve arts, Agung Rai was awarded many awards. Such as, in 2002 he was awarded by Indonesia Government as “The pioneer in advancing the fine arts”. In 2012 he was chosen as Chief of Himusba (Himpunan Museum Bali) 2012-2017. In 2016 “TripAdvisor” awarded ARMA as the best museum in Indonesia. The choice was determined by the tourists who has visited the various museums in Indonesia. The Books of Agung Rai and ARMA can be read in “Gung Rai, Kisah Sebuah Museum // Gung Rai, A Story of Museum” (KPG, 2013), “Saraswati in Bali: A Temple, A Museum and A Mas” (BAB Publishing Indoneisa, 2015”, “Agung Rai, Sang Mumpuni // Agung Rai, The Maestro” (Lestari Kiranatama, 2017).
Anak Agung Pandji Tisna (11 February 1908 – 2 June 1978), also known as Anak Agung Nyoman Pandji Tisna, I Gusti Nyoman Pandji Tisna, or just Pandji Tisna, was the 11th descendant of the Pandji Sakti dynasty of Buleleng, Singaraja, which is in the northern part of Bali, Indonesia. He succeeded his father, Anak Agung Putu Djelantik, in 1944. On the last page of Pandji Tisna's book, I Made Widiadi, written in 1955, he wrote his life story in chronological order. He was a writer and a novelist. He refused to be the king of Buleleng, but being the eldest son, the Japanese occupancy troops forced him to be "syucho" after the death of his father in 1944. During his reign, he became the leader of the Council of Kings of all of Bali from 1946 to 1947 (Paruman Agung) and the Regent of Buleleng. In 1947, because his uniquely Christian faith did not fit in with the predominant Hindu religion, Pandji Tisna surrendered the throne to his younger brother, Anak Agung Ngurah Ketut Djelantik or I Gusti Ketut Djelantik, also known as Meester Djelantik, until 1949. He died 2 June 1978 and was buried in the graveyard on the eastern side of his land near the chapel he built years before. There is a museum in Lovina dedicated to AA Pandji Tisna and his family: https://www.facebook.com/pg/The-Little-Museum-Anak-Agung-Panji-Tisna-KM-0-Lovina-Bali-1402058299856241/about/ +
Andy McGraw received his Ph.D. in ethnomusicology from Wesleyan University in 2005. Dr. McGraw has published several articles and a monograph (on Oxford) concerning traditional and experimental music in Southeast Asia and has written articles on jazz, music in American jails and Cuban music. He is an active performer and directs a Balinese gamelan orchestra for the Richmond community. +
Antonio Blanco was born on September 15, 1911, in Manila, the capital of the Philippines. Both of his parents were Spanish, a fact that Blanco believed linked him geographically and spiritually to Miro and Salvador Dali. His father settled in Manila during the Spanish - American War, where he attained prominence as a physician. Blanco was educated at the American Central School in Manila. During his high school years he loved the arts, literature and language classes but struggled in scientific subjects. It is no wonder that he spoke six languages - Spanish, French, English, Tagalog, Indonesian and a bit of Balinese. After completing high school in Manila, Blanco studied at the National Academy of Art in New York under Sidney Dickinson. During those early formative years, Blanco concentrated on the human form, fascinated by the female body more than any other subject matter. To further his studies and ignite his traveling spirit, he traveled extensively throughout the world before he finally landed in Bali in 1952. The King of Ubud gave Blanco a piece of land to set up his home and studio in Campuan, Ubud, at the confluence of two sacred rivers. Blanco and his Balinese wife, the celebrated dancer Ni Ronji, lived in their mountain retreat, barely leaving it for the world outside. Following a brief trip to the United States, where Blanco acquired many new collectors, the couple never left their fantasy home again. Living in serene surroundings with his four children, Tjempaka, Mario, Orchid and Maha Devi, Bali became Blanco's center. He was fascinated by the island and completely captivated by its charm. Blanco lived and worked in his magical hilltop home until his death in 1999, feverishly creating his fantasy portraits of beautiful women. Surrounded by lush gardens, rice fields and with a Banyan tree standing over his family's temple, Antonio Blanco proceeded to create a new reality for himself. His artistic outpourings of this isolated world became much sought after by eager art lovers, collectors and promoters. Within a few years, Blanco became the most famous foreign artist to make Bali his home. He was recognized in both Indonesia and abroad, receiving numerous Blanco Awards and commanding huge prizes at international auctions. By the end of his life, Blanco had begun building his museum at his studio in Campuan. Dramatically, he died just before its inauguration. His funeral was marked by a very important Blanco Cremationin Ubud. It was Blanco's dream to turn his studio-mansion into a museum. His son, Mario, fulfilled this dream by following his path to become a painter. The Blanco Renaissance Museum is now open to the public, exposing both the maestro's and Mario's art works.
15 April 1916 – 23 March 2016. Dutch-born Indonesian painter who lived on Bali. Smit was the third of eight children of a trader in cheese and confectionery in Zaandam. His family moved in 1924 to Rotterdam, where Smit eventually studied graphic design at the Academy of Arts. In his youth he was most inspired by the work of three artists named Paul (Signac, Gauguin and Cézanne).In 1938 he joined the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army. After three months he was sent to the Dutch East Indies , where he worked as a lithographer for the Dutch army's Topographical Service in Batavia, engraving relief maps of the archipelago. Etching Balinese mountains onto maps ignited his desire to one day go to Bali. In early 1942 Smit was transferred to the infantry in East Java, but was soon captured by the invading Japanese forces. He spent three and a half years in forced labor camps building roads, bridges, and railways on the Burma Railway in Thailand, and Burma. After the Japanese capitulation in August 1945, Smit convalesced in Bangkok until January 1946. After being stationed in Denpasar, Bali as a staff writer for the infantry, he returned to the Topographical Service in Batavia in September. Until its discontinuation in 1950, he remained employed at this service, eventually becoming head of the drawing department, but in his spare time he criss-crossed Java as a painter and in October 1948 had his first exhibition in Batavia/Jakarta. After Indonesian Independence on December 27, 1949, all Dutch nationals had to choose between Dutch or Indonesian citizenship within two years. Smit briefly considered emigrating to South Africa, but decided to stay; he became an Indonesian citizen late in 1951. In the following years he taught graphics and lithography at the Institut Teknologi Bandung in West Java. Bali On invitation by the Dutch artist Rudolf Bonnet he visited Bali in 1956, together with Dutch artist Auke Sonnega. He soon met art dealer James (Jimmy) Clarence Pandy, who ran a gallery and souvenir shop. Pandy invited Smit to stay in a house on stilts at the beach of Sanur. Smit and Pandy remained friends and formed a partnership. Pandy was well-connected; Sukarno would sometimes bring his state guests to his gallery. With his love for bright colors, Smit was captured by the Balinese landscapes in its 'riotous light', and soon decided to stay to depict its villages, rice terraces, palm trees and temples. In 1960, while touring the village of Penestanan in the Ubud District where he then lived, he came upon some boys drawing in the sand. Impressed by their talent, Smit invited them to his studio, where they became the first of a growing number of students. With minimal instruction but lots of encouragement and material support, his pupils created a naive style of genre painting that became known as the 'Young Artists' style, which at its peak had 300-400 followers. Though he is considered the father of the movement, its style is quite different than any of Smit's own styles over the years. From the time of his arrival in Bali, Smit moved some 40 times, "to see what is beyond the next hill". He stayed longest in his favorite areas of Karangasem and Buleleng. He finally settled in 1992 in the village of Sanggingan near Ubud under the patronage of Pande Wayan Suteja Neka, founder of the Neka Art Museum. In recognition for his role in the development of painting on the island, Smit received the Dharma Kusama (Flower of Devotion, a Balinese cultural award) in 1992 from the government of Bali. The Arie Smit Pavilion was opened at the Neka Art Museum in 1994 to display his works and those of contemporary Balinese artists. The Museum Bali in Denpasar and the Penang Museum in Malaysia also have collections of his work. Smit further had exhibits in Jakarta, Singapore, Honolulu and Tokyo. Smit lived near Ubud for the rest of his life, but died on 23 March 2016 in a hospital Denpasar at three weeks before turning 100.
Ida Bagus Arya Lawa Manuaba is the author of the book “Alien Menurut Hindu” (2018) which became a phenomenal book throughout 2018-2019. His first novel, “Putih Biru” (2019), tells a story of an adventure of rural teenagers in Bali and was ranked in the top eight of the selected novels at the 2017 UNNES International Novel Writing Contest in Semarang. His second novel is entitled “Haricatra” with three sequels and is in the process of publishing. In addition to nonfiction books and novels, he also writes many short stories and articles. One of his best short stories is entitled “Barong Brutuk” (2019) which tells about the mysticism of Terunyan Village. Gus Arya, his nickname, is known through his writings. People who know him always associate him with writing, imagination and even aliens. Born in Denpasar, December 24, 1988, he loved the world of writing since childhood. During the fourth grade of elementary school, he wrote a series of stories that he read daily to his friends. After school, he wrote a horror story in a notebook and then shared it with his friends at school. During middle school, he won several article writing and short story competitions. When he was in high school, his name always appeared in the best six short stories of the annual short story competition at Balai Bahasa Provinsi Bali. Among all the short stories he has ever written, the short story “Orang-Orang Berbaju Hitam” (2011) is the most meaningful. With that short story, he helped his poor friend pay school fees for one year. Now Gus Arya works as a lecturer at ITP Markandeya Bali in the field of prose. He also manages independent publishing and writer services, and is active in the preservation of Balinese language and literature at the BASAbali Wiki. His hobby is traveling in a quiet village and going to museums. +
HISTORY OF ARYA DALEM BENCULUK TEGEHKORI Chapter one Once upon a time in the past, there is a king, Arya Dalem Bansuluk Tegehkori is his name. He is the son of the king Dalem Shri Aji Kresna Kepakisan from Gelgel Klungkung kingdom. He rules the the land of Badeng kingdom. Badeng (or Badung) means dark. Because the land soil at this region is darker than other region. This is the story of his life journey. King Ida Dalem Shri Aji Kresna Kepakisan is located at Puri Linggarsapura in Samprangan, Gianyar area. The castle was the former stronghold post of Mahapatih (the great prime minister) Gajahmada’s from Majapahit empire of Java to invade King Bedahulu of Bali kingdom. After Bali kingdom defeated, Ida Dalem Shri Aji Kresna Kepakisan was crowned King of Bali in 1352 AD by Queen Majapahit Tribhuana Tunggadewi. the new king Bali king then separate Bali into few small kingdoms lead by his war generals. He reigned until 1380 AD. One day when full moon, king Ida Dalem Shriaji Kresna Kepakisan, took place in the royal hall, was meeting with the prime minister ministers and all his war general. Notable among them are Arya Kenceng son of Arya Damar who was made the ruler in Tabanan, Arya Sentong in Pacung, Arya Beleteng in Pinatih, Arya Kutawaringin in Kapal, Arya Binculu in Tangkas, Arya Pakisan in Abiansemal, Arya Belog in Kaba-kaba, and three knight named Tan Kober, Tan Kawur and Tan Mundur. At that time, Arya Kenceng wore chrysanthemum green flowers at his hat. Ida Dalem's heart was shocked when he found out that Arya Kenceng was wearing the green chrysanthemum flower. Immediately his anger rose, due to the slander launched by Arya Pengalasan Jelantik. It is said that Arya Kenceng put magic on the king, so that the king would love and submit to him. Immediately Shri Raja punished Patih Arya Kenceng from war general into gardener with the obligation to clean the hall every day. The commotion at the Puri Dalem Samprangan Hall is thought to have occurred in 1360. From that moment on, Arya Kenceng felt very deep sadness and often cried when he remembered his favorite son named Ngurah Tabanan. The son was given the name Ngurah Tabanan, because Arya Kenceng participated in conquering (naban) this Balinese country after fighting against Si Pasung Grigis, the governor of Raja Bedahulu. After a long time, it was time for Arya Kenceng to receive God's grace. It was mentioned that the king Ida Dalem had a son who was only eleven months old to crawl. The boy was crawling very fast. The caretaker is named Ni Dasa Dasih. The prince is also getting closer to Arya Kenceng because he often carried out by him. Until one day, Arya Kenceng intention appeared to make efforts to get himself free from punishment. One time when Ida Dalem was sitting in front of his ministers, suddenly the son was released from behind the King. Crawling swiftly and then reaching for king's shoulder. Then approached by Arya Kenceng while lifting the son higher than Ida Dalem's back while apologizing from behind the King. As soon as the king turned his head, he saw the height behind him. The king was furious, then said: "You are very clever at making a ploy. Now, because my son has made a mistake grabbing my shoulder, as written in Niti Sloka (The Kingdom rule), when the king is dressed in his royal dress as the leader of the country, nobody is allowed to touch the king. The rule said whoever touch the king must be execute. But I can’t execute him because he is my son. So, Arya Kenceng, take my son, make him your adopted son, the ceremony with a bonfire on top of which is filled with a buffalo head. Brother him with your son I Ngurah Tabanan. Now I give the name to him Arya Dalem Bansuluk Tegehkuri. (Tegeh mean tall or high and Kori or Kuri mean behind, because he was taller from behind when he touch the king’s shoulder)”. Immediately, Arya Kenceng was unbelievably happy to have a son who was handsome and very smart. Then respectfully excuse himself to bring the prince to his castle at Tabanan, make him brother to Ngurah Tabanan. This tale is also written at Prasasti Babad Dalem Tabanan Tegehkori manuscript. Arya Kenceng then carried out the adopted ceremony according to the mandate of Ida Dalem. The blood that flows in prince Arya Dalem Bansuluk Tegehkori from generation to generation remains the blood of Ida Dalem Shri Aji Kresna Kepakisan. Now more than six centuries have passed, all of his genetic descendants remember to always come to offer devotion before The king Ida Bhatara Kawitan Dalem Shri Aji Kresna Kepakisan at his family temple at Mother Temple Besakih. Time pass by and the 2 kids now become young men. Between Arya Tegehkori and Ngurah Tabanan, a misunderstanding and conflict arise. Arya Tabanan has a wife, he is jealous that he thinks his wife have an affair with Arya Tegehkori. He always try to harm him in many ways Feeling uneasy, Arya Tegehkori decide to leave the Tabanan kingdom then went to get rid of himself to Mount Batur to meditation. After some time meditating there, he got a gift from the god of Mount Batur in the form of a whiting box. If Arya Tegeh Kori wanted to put himself in it, the power of the whiting box would shrink. Whenever it comes out of the box, he can return his body to normal size. That is the magic of the whiting box, a gift from the goddess of Mount Batur, then the god said to Arya Tegehkori: “I gave you the magic box. Now you have to go to Tonjayu Village at the dark land (Badeng). There are some clans inhabit the area like Pasek Bendesa, Pasek Kubayan, Dangka, Ngukuhin, Tangkas and they don't have a king yet. These days they have big ceremony, use this magic box there. Of course you will be appointed king in the Badeng or Badung area. Be a ruler, be a king!“.As the command of Ida Batara Dewi Danu, the goddess of Batur lake and mountain, then Arya Tegehkori left for the Badeng or Badung area. When he arrived in the Badung area, it was already evening, so he to the chief’s village house at Tonja. There he concentrated his spiritual power so that he could enter the container of magic whiting boxthat he had placed on the gate. His body shrunk and able to fit in the box perfectly. The next day, when the sun rise, the village chief saw that there was a box on the gate. Then while opening the lid. Seen a small child in the container of whiting box. The chief mind was amazed to see this strange and miraculous event. Immediately Ihe worshiped and said: "My noble Lord". Having just finished saying this, the little boy who was in the box immediately came out. Back in its original form as as a man. Looks good, handsome and dignified. The longer it was seen, the more amazed the chief's feelings. Then Arya Tegehkori then himself. He explained that he was the son of the Bali king Ida Dalem Kresna Kepakisan at the Swecapura Gelgel castle. He was the brother of Arya Tabanan in the country of Tambangan (Tabanan). He also explained clearly how the adventure that he experienced from beginning to end. The chief is amazed and ask him to rest at his house. After the chief carried out the piodalan ceremony, he immediately held discussions with his clan brothers, such as Pasek Gaduh, Kebayan, Dangka, Ngukuhin, Tangkas, about the need to make him a palace and prepare for his coronation to become king as ruler in the Badeng or Badung region, and report to the King of Bali kingdom Shriaji Kresna Kepakisan at the Swecapura Gelgel castle. The king at Gelgel was very agreeable because anyway Arya Tegehkori is his son. At the age of a toddler he was banished from the family. At a young age with the blessing of the goddess Ida Bhatari Ulun Danu Batur and thanks to the approval of the King of Bali who was also his father and for the support of the people, he ascended the throne to become the first King of Badung kingdom. In order for him to truly become a noble king in the Land of Badung, the chief again held a deliberation to build a palace worthy of him. The palace was built in the upper reaches of the village or in the north. After the palace was completed, it was there that the king Arya Tegeh Kori resided. After some time as king, he built two holy temple. The temple to worship the God of Agung mountainwas built to the east of the palace. The place for worshiping the goddes Bhatara Dewi Danu Batur is made to the west of the palace called Pura Batursari. After a while the king then married. Then his son (2nd dinasty) built another palace, also still in the Badung area, because more and more people live in the Badung area and the condition of the land is fertile. After the second palace was built, it was named Puri Satria (Satria palace), as a characteristic that he was a descendant of Knights. Meanwhile, the Tegehkori palace (1st dinasty) in Tonja was named Puri Dalem Benculuk. In the recently completed castle, a pair of very tall palace gates were also built, none of which were on par in all of Bali. The disadvantage is that if it is broken, it is rather difficult to repair it, presumably that is His wish to build a very high gate at Puri Satria, so that it is in accordance with the name of his father in Tegehkori. The Tegehkori dynasty is ruling the kingdom from 1378 - 1687. Chapter Two Meanwhile at Tambangan (Tabanan) kingdom, after king Arya Kenceng passed away, his son Arya Tabanan replace him as king. He have crown prince name Ngurah Rangong. The old king Arya Tabanan suffered a seriuos illness, then moved to live at the village of Kebon Tingguh. Ngurah Rangong intention was to wait for the throne to become the king of Tabanan kingdom. The old king Arya Tabanan was served by a woman named Luh Bendesa from Buahan village. During the service, the king touched Luh Bendesa and become pregnant. From this relationship, Luh Bendesa then gave birth to a son who was named I Gusti Pucangan. Later on the king is passed away. After Arya Tabanan died, Ngurah Rangong become next king. But he is afraid that Pucangan someday will also claim his territory. Ngurah Rangong made efforts so that Pucangan would soon meet his death. Outside the Tambangan palace, there is a very sacred banyan tree. King Ngurah Rangong then ordered his younger brother, Pucangan, to cut the tree branches. However, to the great surprise of the brother, it turned out that the younger brother was still safe. Since then I Gusti Pucangan has been named Gusti Bagus Alit Notor Wandira. The king never stop to try to kill his brother. Unable to stand it, Pucangan then left Tambangan palace to Mount Batur. On the shores of Lake Batur appeared the goddes Ida Bhatari Tolangkir who said: "Hi Pucangan, what are you looking for here alone?". Gusti Pucangan replied: "Oh dear goddess, this servant is too troubled. I have a half brother who was made king by my father. Besides, my brother I Gusti Rangong was hostile to. ” Ida Batari again said: "If you are devoted to me, uphold me through the lake water, take me to Mount Batur". Pucangan replied: "I will do, even if it make myself sinking”. By the magical power of goddess Ida Bhatari, Pucangan walked safely across the lake to Mount Batur will upheld the goddess. Goddes Ida Bhatari said: "O Pucangan, you truly devote to me, now I give you a whip and a tulup (a traditional Bali weapon made by bamboo) You must go to Gelgel palace and kill the king’s enemies in the form of raven, because they often ruin the king’s food. It is this whip and dipper that you used to kill that evil raven. After it is successful, someday you Pucangan will become king in the Land of Badung ”. This incident occurred when the Balinese Kingdom, which was centered in Klungkung, was led by King Dalem Anom Sagening (1580-1665) who was residing at Puri Swecapura palace at Gelgel. Meanwhile, the King of Badung at that time was I Gusti Tegehkori V. The blessing of goddess Ida Bhatari and the approval of the King of Bali were the main assets obtained by Pucangan in achieving success of gaining power. Prince Pucangan continued his journey, accompanied by a follower named Tambiak from Mount Batur to the Swecapura Palace at Gelgel. It was mentioned that Ida Dalem was in the hall faced by his prime minister. I Gusti Pucangan then confronted him and declared that he was able to kill the crow, who often ruined the king's food. King Ida Dalem was surprised, then asked: "Where are you from son and what is your name?". Pucangan replied: “Master, this servant is named is Pucangan from Buahan Village, son of the late king Arya Tabanan. I just came from Mount Batur ”, then he explained his life from the beginning until now. Immediately he also remembered Ida Dalem about the past stories and he was very happy about the arrival of someone who would help to destroy the crow. The next day, the prime minister had gathered to meet Ida Dalem. In the afternoon the crow came who was going to spoil King's meal. Prince Pucangan quickly shoot the tulup, hitting the raven’s wing until it broke. After being hit and falling, King ordered to hit it with a whip, so that the crow met his death immediately. Ravens are often used as symbols of darkness, anger and death. After that, the king was very happy. "Now, because of your great devotion to me," he was then presented with a set of clothes. He continued saying: "what else do you ask for?". Prince Pucangan remember with the words of goddess Ida Bhatari Tolangkir when he met on Mount Batur who would grant the area in Badung. Then the prince Gusti Pucangan asked to be given a place in the Badung area. With pleasure the King granted, then said: “I granted your request Pucangan, after all there at the land of badung, your family Arya Tegehkori at the Satria Palace ruled. You better get there, go ". Pucangan then go to Badung kingdom to be precise at the house of the chief of Lumintang Village. Furthermore, the chief of Lumintang informed the king about the arrival of the prince Pucangan. The king Gusti Tegehkori IV was very happy to accept the arrival of his family, prince Pucangan. The king then give him 250 people to build a palace to the southwest of Puri Satria palace. The new palace was named Puri Jambe palace. The king then appointed him as punggawa (guardian knight) of Badung kingdom. After king Tegeh Kori IV passed away, his son Tegeh Kori V replace him as king and have beautiful 15 years daughter named Ayu Genjot and handsome 13 year boy named Ngurah Raden. Prince Pucangan request the king to allowed his son to marry her daughter. But at other hand, the old king of Mengwi kingdom also propose the princess to marry his crown prince. At that time, Mengwi kingdom become more powerful and have larger troops than peaceful Badung kingdom. So the king decide to accept the Mengwi king’s propose. Prince Pucangan is furious to hear that. Night before the Mengwi’s prince arrive to marry the princess, Pucangan with his troops storming the Satria palace. Pucangan is the guardian knight of Badung kingdom. He knows the palace so well and most of the troops is loyal to him. The palace is chaos and burn down. Considering the safety of his family, the king then decide to escape from the palace. Only five of them on that dark night Arya Dalem Tegehkori V (I Gusti Made Tegeh) escaped with the empress and her two sons and an in-law named Munang. His departure did not carry anything, only a box of inscriptions which was the heirloom of Puri Satria palace that he carried. All his cousins and other family also escape and scatter into many directions around Bali. The Tegehkori dynasty at Badung kingdom is fallen. Chapter 3 Year 1724, During the five days he retreated in the mountain & forest, his children almost died because they did not eat anything. The group of Gusti Made Tegeh family arrived at a Village and went straight to the house of a village chief named I Pengkoh. It is very respectful that chief Pengkoh and his family entertain the guest of honor. For twenty days Gusti Made Tegeh group stayed at the house of the chief. One time, it was the middle of the dry season, so in a short time the rice supply in the barn ran out. What remains is only rat droppings mixed with grain skin, chief Pengkoh's wife only found that out. Chief Pengkoh prepared a pot in the kitchen to cook rice. Until the water in the pot was boiling, his wife did not get a grain of rice. Chief Pengkoh's anger rise, he then poured the hot water and scold his wife. Gusti Made Tegeh witnessed this very unpleasant incident, which made him feel very embarrassed. After a discussion with his brother-in-law, I Munang, the former King and his brother-in-law went to hunt some food to the mountains. Meanwhile his wife and two children were left at chief’s house. After Gusti Made Tegeh left for the mountain, chief Pengkoh's evil thought occurred. His two children were ask to permission to his mother to accompany him to find rice. His mother agreed, so they left. In the middle of their journey, the children of Gusti Made Tegeh were tricked into making their way to the Denbukit area (later called Buleleng). When he arrived in Kalianget Village, his two kids were sold by chief Pengkoh to Ngurah Kalianget for 150 pieces of belongings plus a number of cloths. After 10 days Gusti Made Tegeh and his brother-in-law went to the mountains for hunting, finally they back to chief’s house. They asked her the whereabouts of his children to his wife. She explained that their children was taken to the mountain by the chief. It's been 10 days yet to come back. When Gusti Made Tegeh heard his wife's answer, he was shocked and realized the misery they were experiencing. While shedding tears, he then told his wife and I Munang that the two of them would look for their children to Karangasem area. He himself looked to Denbukit. From there they parted ways, his wife and his brother went to Karangasem and he went to Denbukit. After crossing Denbukit land, he arrived at Ambengan Hamlet. From that hamlet the journey to Sangket Village. From there he disguised himself to investigate the whereabouts of his children who had no news. On that time Gusti Made Singaraja, the descendants of Gusti Panji Sakti is the King Denbukit kingdom and resides at Puri Sukasada palace. That's where he headed. It happened that King Denbukit was watching the Gambuh dance training. Those 2 person than talk and feel like each other. After some happy talk, he was asked to participate in Gambuh dance performance. It is difficult to find a comparison with the greatness of Gusti Made Tegeh in the art of Gambuh. Day and night the performance of Gambuh is joyful, which is why the king's palace was named Puri Sukasada. After some period of time in clever disguise, Gusti Made Tegeh was very dear and trusted to King Denbukit. He was rewarded with as many as two hundred followers, including forty of whom were teenagers. He then assign into the sedahan agung (treasurer of the king) and also his war advisor. Nobody equals the wisdom of King Denbukit, so that it is respected by anyone, has the authority as a descendant of the warrior king of the gods. No one dared to oppose his orders. It could be said that the prosperity of the kingdom which was centered at the Sukasada Palace. Under his command, Denbukit kingdom spreading their teritory by invading many village to knee under Denbukit authority. Gusti Made Tegeh did this in order to find his children. Half of Bali island then become the territory of Denbukit kingdom. Now it is told that the chief of Kalianget village name Ngurah Sindhuwedang have Gusti Made Tegeh sons and daughter and made them into servant at his house. The village of Kalianget has a population of 1,450 people. Ngurah Kalianget, who had a haughty heart and was very jealous of Denbukit King decided to fight the Denbukit kingdom. But the king quickly heard of him, and ordered Gusti Made Tegeh to beat Ngurah Kalianget before he could gather his strength. Quickly, Gusti Made Tegeh brought 200 elite warrior on their way to Kalianget Village. When Gusti Made Tegeh troops arrived and recon the Kalianget Village, they found out that Ngurah Kalianget 1.000 soldiers were also on preparation to attack Sukasada palace. Gusti Made Tegeh and his 200 elite warriors prepare to attack at night. The attack was carried out suddenly at night made the Ngurah Kalianget soldiers shocked and confuse, they feel like stormed by thousands of enemies accompanied by spirits. Ngurah Kalianget soldier lost and surrendered. Ngurah Kalianget was taken prisoner, the whole house and its young and old residents were seized and taken to Puri Sukasada that dawn. By order of the king, Ngurah Kalianget was sentenced to death. Then he bring all other prisoners to kingdom prison. They were mixed up, including Gusti Made Tegeh children who had been sold and hidden in Kalianget. Until the end of the attack on Kalianget, he did not know the whereabouts of his children. Suddenly Gusti Made Tegeh hear 2 young teenager cried heartbreaking among the prisoners, calling out her father and mother: "O the holy king of Tegehkori, look at me, it's been such a long time now that we haven't met my father and mother, I hope God Ida Sang Hyang Widhi will bring them together as soon as possible". Because the boy's lamentation and mention his ancestor Tegehkori, attracted enough attention and immediately approached the two young teenager. He shock that they are his children, Ayu Genjot and Ngurah Raden. The father and children finally reunite again Meanwhile his wife and her brother who had been traveling for a long time looking for their sons and daughters in the Karangasem area, then heard the news that Gusti Made Tegeh had gathered with their children at his place at Puri Sukasada palace. They hurriedly came to Denbukit and headed for the Sukasada Palace and there they reunite together, He was very happy. After awhile, he order his son Ngurah Raden & his brother in law to return to Badung kingdom to meet the new king Pucangan. Arriving in Badung, since the Satria palace had been occupied by I Gusti Pucangan who later ascended the throne to become the king of Badung, he faced Ngurah Raden to his castle, claiming to be ordered back by his father Gusti Made Tegeh because anyway they are still family and understand why Pucangan furious and raid him. He hold no grudge. Pucangan love and care Ngurah Raden since he’s a baby and always carry him everywhere when he was act as the guardian knight of Badung. Ngurah Raden also childhood friend and like brother to his sons. Gusti Made Tegeh know that Pucangan will never have the heart to kill Ngurah Raden. Because Pucangan felt himself reunited with his nephew, he gladly presented 200 people and 40 plots of rice fields to Ngurah Raden. At the king's orders, he built a palace on the west side of the river on a forest plot. After completion, the palace was given the name Jro Kuta palace. King Pucangan have 2 sons. The older ones were given a place to live in the east of the river and given an inheritance weapon. Later the palace was called Puri Denpasar palace (because it was located north of the market). Meanwhile, his younger brother was made a place to live in the west of the river and was given an heirloom weapon, therefore the palace was later called Puri Pamecutan. After a long period of time when king Gusti Pucangan ruled in the Badung Kingdom, he died, then he was replaced by his two sons who both competed to become king to replace their father to become king in Badung State. For a long time Gusti Made Tegeh lived in the vicinity of the Sukasada Denbukit Palace. He was very active in helping the king prosper the country, so that the king loved him very much. Her daughter Ayu Genjot also became a dancer and was later married to a nobleman from the village of Petandakan. Someday the king Gusti Agung Gede of Mengwi Kingdom wants to visit Denbukit kingdom. Considering that King Mengwi was very famous for his supernatural power, the Denbukit king intended to try to test if it was true as the news was. He order Gusti Made Tegeh to ambush the Mengwi king’s parade. He bring 40 elite warriors to ambush under the kepuh tree in the Banyuning cemetery. Then came the moment he had been waiting for, Mengwi king’s parade arrive. The king was carried and accompanied by 200 of his people. When he was close, then king Mengwi who was being carried on a stretcher, was intercepted by Gusti Made Tegeh, and he was speared violently. However, he was not hurt in the slightest because his body was so invincible. King Mengwi said to his companions: "send me down, O soldier". Then He got down from the stretcher and immediately took a meditative stance. In an instant he changed his form into resemble Bhuta Sungsang, a giant with six eyes, six arms, six legs and six heads. It seems that no one will be able to match His supernatural powers in this world. There the troops brought by Gusti Made Tegeh felt fear and all of them ran helter-skelter. Meanwhile, Gusti Made Tegeh himself retreated and hid himself far enough to the west in the forest hills of Pedawa. Returning to king of Mengwi, the assassination attempt he had just experienced did not dampen his steps towards the Sukasada Palace. On arrival at Puri Sukasada palace, laughing out loud, he received a warm welcome from King Denbukit whom asking for forgiveness. King Mengwi said: “Okay, son, there's no need to extend this issue because I already know that you only want to test my supernatural power. Now this old man only asks you son, to search the person that order to attack me. This old man was very surprised of the courage of this man and also his loyalty to was amazing. You have never met someone like that, I have a feeling that he is a descendant of a famous knights ". Then the king of Denbukit ordered his troops to look for Gusti Made Tegeh. However, even though they traces or days, they still cannot be found Gusti Made Tegeh. He was hiding at the top of a millet tree. When the troops approaching, there are some doves perch at the millet branch. Gusti Made Tegeh pray and begging to doves the millet tree to let him stay there. Normally, dove bird will fly away if there are people around it. But suddenly these doves singing. The troops saw it and assume that nobody there and passing by. Gusti Made Tegeh then make an oath that none of his descendant will eat millet fruit or harm any dove. Until 7 days he remained there. With a sluggish body, emaciated and very dirty, then he walked slowly leaving the millet field towards the west, taking refuge in the village of Patemon. The situation when he arrived at the village indicated that it was already evening. He headed for the rice trading house, wife of the puppeteer Patemon. He was very pity for her to see that his condition was very tired and emaciated, so she was invited him to their house and served with food. The pupetter's family sympathy for Gusti Made Tegeh for being chased by royal soldiers. The pupetter's family then making a well hole for him to take shelter in. Everyday afternoon he hid himself in a foxhole. When night fell, He was taken out of the shelter. He made friends with the villagers. It has been for 15 days since he stay there and very uncomfortable and don’t want the helper family involve in trouble. He excused himself from pupetter’s house and then left to Bubunan Village. In that village, he also made friends with the villagers. For about a month in Bunbunan Village, Arya Dalem's mind grew more restless. He is thinking about his family that might be executed because he failed the king’s order. Then he decide to go back to Sukasada palace to prepare his death sentence but will beg for his family life to spare. 10 of villagers accompany him. Arriving at Puri Sukasada, the two kings were sitting rejoicing in the palace facing the royal servants. They was surprised to see people who had just arrived dressed all in white. The white cloth a sign that they will be willing to die if something unwanted happens. So Gusti Made Tegeh and his ten followers presented a bow while begging for mercy in front of the two kings if they were judged to have done something wrong. The king of mengwi then ask Gusti Made Tegeh who he really is. Who is his true identity. He then said that he is the descendant of Arya Tegehkori, the founder of Badung kingdom. He tell them all his journey. King Mengwi then said: "O Arya, in my opinion, what you did to me was absolutely innocent. I thought, you only carrying out your loyalty towards the king of Denbukit, carrying out orders to attack. Now, my son the king of Denbukit, from now on never ever forget the loyalty and sincerity of the sacrifices that Gusti Made Tegeh has given to you forever ”. After saying this, King Mengwi summoned a servant of his companion to take a keris and a spear at the place of his bed. After king Mengwi order that, Gusti Made Tegeh and all of his 10 followers immediately experienced extreme anxiety and fear. Of course they think that this is the time when the death sentence start. The servant then handed over a keris and a spear, and was accepted by the King of Mengwi, saying: "O Arya, this is my gift in the form of a keris and a spear. This keris is called Carita Belebang, its usefulness is to maintain safety and the enemy doesn't dare see it. This spear is called Lelemon, it has great authority. This is proof so that from now on down from generation to generation, from life to death, never forget the descendants of King Denbukit, and also for my son the king of Denbukit, never forget Gusti Made Tegeh descendants forever. You must always help and support each other. Remember, whoever forgets this mandate of mine will find misery and heartbreak” Thus again said the King of Mengwi: "And now, O Arya, which land that you will request ?”. Hearing the words of King Mengwi which greatly pleased Gusti Made Tegeh, then he said: "If it is allowed, Bubunan Village is my request, because they are very loyal to me when I find trouble”. Thus, Bubunan, Sulanyah, Tanguwisia Village was awarded to Gusti Made Tegeh. Then Gusti Made Tegeh and his family is allowed to return with his followers to Bubunan Village. For about 3 years he lived in Bubunan Village, because the land there was uneven. then they moved to Muntis Village ( later on change its name to Pengastulan village). Epilogue At Pengastulan, Gusti Made Tegeh became punggawa (guardian knight) and stay at a house name Jero Lingsir. Right to the west of his house he built an ancestral temple which was named Pura Badung as a honor to his ancestors whom was the King of Badung. He wrote all his extra ordinary journey into a manuscript called Prasasti Pura Badung. This prasasti is then passed through generations, along with his family tree. He and his descendant swear that they will always serve to Denbukit (Buleleng) kingdom forever. Until later Dutch invade the kingdom and fall after the Great Battle of Jagaraga on 1849.
Aryadimas Ngurah Hendratno was born in Denpasar on September 13, 1975. He has been writing poetry since he was a teenager, was once a part of Teater Angin (SMAN 1 Denpasar), and had contact with Sanggar Minum Kopi. A number of his poems have been published in Bali Post and in the anthologies Ensiklopedi Pejalan Sunyi (2015) and Klungkung: Tanah Tua, Tanah Cinta (2016). He is the "village head" of the Jatijagat Kampung Puisi (Jatijagat Poetry Village), teaches literature and theater at the Tahkta Theater at SMK Saraswati 1 in Denpasar, and manages the Rumah Belajar Seni (Art Study House) in Denpasar. +
IN Dutch: (Sibolga, 25 november 1864 – Baarn, 9 februari 1939) Nederlands romanschrijfster. Haar bekendste werk is Orpheus in de dessa (1903). Biografie Ze werd geboren op Sumatra, alwaar haar vader Jan Carel de Wit werkzaam was als resident. Haar vroege jeugd bracht ze door in Indië. Na in Utrecht de HBS te hebben doorlopen studeerde ze Engels in Londen en Cambridge. In 1894 keerde ze weer naar Indië terug om in Batavia aan de HBS voor meisjes les te gaan geven. Haar werk en woonomgeving in Batavia vergden veel van haar gezondheid. Na twee jaar werkzaam te zijn geweest in het onderwijs, ging ze in 1896 voor de Engelstalige krant Singapore Straits Times schrijven. De artikelen die ze schreef werden gebundeld onder de titel Facts and fancies about Java (1898). Hiermee was haar debuut in het Engels een feit. Ze schreef onder andere voor de NRC een letterkundige rubriek. In 1905 vestigde ze zich in Laren en ondernam in 1910 een drie jaren durende reis naar Indië. Ze woonde daarna in Berlijn, München, Parijs, Granow en de laatste jaren in Baarn. De Wit wordt beschouwd als een schrijfster uit de literaire stroming der ethici. Met name in haar vroege werk is beïnvloeding van de Tachtigers terug te vinden. Ze was bevriend met Henriëtte Roland Holst. Zoals ze in Gods goochelaartjes (1932) verwoordde, is haar schrijven een "schoone schijn die de omhullende openbaring is van schooner werkelijkheid". Haar natuurbeschrijvingen zijn veel geprezen. Ze schreef ook onder het pseudoniem G.W. Sylvius. De Wit overleed op 74-jarige leeftijd na twee jaar ernstig ziek te zijn geweest. Ze leed aan angina pectoris, kwam hoogst zelden buiten en werd in een rolstoel gereden. Haar laatste boek, de novelle Liefde en geweld langs de Barito, schreef zij op haar ziekbed. Zij ligt begraven te Oosterbeek. +
Ayu Putu Feny Abrina Putra, born in Penestanan Kelod, Ubud, October 5th, 1992. She graduated from Fine Art Education in ISI Denpasar. The collaborative exhibition she has joined, such as "Ekspresi Indonesiaku" in Nasional Indonesia Museum (2014), "Brutal Art Work" in dolf Bonnet Tjampuhan Ubud Studi (2016), "Merdeka dalam Ekspresi" in Taman Budaya Bali (2019) +