Land donations and the gift of water. On temple landlordism and Irrigation agriculture in pre-colonial Bali

Schäublin 2011 HumanEcology.png
Title of article (Indonesian)
Donasi tanah dan anugerah air. Kepemilikan Tanah oleh Pura dan Subak pada Masa Pre-kolonial di Bali
Title of article (Balinese)
Tanah pelaba lan paica toya. Tanah kadruwenang olih pura lan subak rikenjekan pre-kolonial ring Bali.
Original title language
English
Author(s)
Subjects
  • Bali
  • subak
  • temple
  • rice
  • landlordism
  • water
  • management
Title of Journal
Human Ecology
Volume and Issue number
39(1)
Date of Publication
2011/03/01
Page Numbers
43-53
Link to whole article
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3056004/
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      Abstract


      In English

      The Batur Temple (Pura Ulun Danu Batur) in Kintamani is located at the geographic apex of a so-called ritual water hierarchy and has conventionally been described as a purely religious institution responsible for the coordination and distribution of the irrigation water. However, an analysis of historical palm leaf manuscripts reveals that the temple had a firm economic base with corresponding interests and that it was one of the most important land-owners in late pre-colonial Bali. The article therefore explores from a socio-political and economic perspective the implications of this form of temple landlordism and its combination with ritual water control, particularly for the peasants and the portion of their annual surplus that they were obliged to deliver to this temple.

      In Balinese

      Pura Ulun Danu Batur ring Kintamani magenah ring Kintamani magenah ring pucaking wawidangan kasungkemin olih i krama pinaka wit toya suci upacara. Manut penampen religius taler pinake sumber toya irigasi sane mawiguna nguripin sekancan entik-entikan. Makudang lontar taler nyuratang kocap Pura Ulun Danu Batur maderebe pikenoh ekonomi sane mabuat seantukan pura inucap maduwe tanah pelaba sane limbar, ngawit rikala gumine kegamel olih i kolonial. Panyuratan puniki gumanti ngarembayang sajeroning parindikan sosio-politik lan ekonomi, antuk kawentenan tanah duwen pura penampen ngeninin toya suci upacara lan kawentenan kekenen sane katiba ring para petani marupa sarin tahun paradene tetandurane mupu.

      In Indonesian

      Pura Batur (Pura Ulun Danu Batur) di Kintamani terletak di puncak geografis yang disebut hirarki air ritual dan telah secara konvensional digambarkan sebagai institusi murni religius yang mengkoordinasikan dan mendistribusikan air irigrasi. Namun, analisa terhadap sejumlah lontar menunjukkan bahwa pura ini juga memiliki basis ekonomi yang kuat dengan kepentingan khususnya selain juga sebagai salah satu pemilik tanah terpenting di masa pre-kolonial Bali. Artikel ini membahas perspektif sosio-politik dan ekonomi sebagai implikasi dari bentuk kepemilikan tanah oleh pura yang dikombinasikan dengan pengaturan air ritual, khususnya kepada para petani dan porsi surplus tahunan yang diperoleh yang wajib disetorkan petani kepada pura ini.