Sundarigama

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Name of Lontar
Sundarigama
Identification
Lontar Tattwa
Photo Reference
Paramita
Location
Gedong Kirtya
Credit
Reference
Related music
Background information


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    Summary


    In English

    Lontar Sundarigama is a palm-leaf manuscript that lists the names of Hindu holidays and rituals in Bali, as well as the procedures for their implementation. Written by Dang Hyang Dwijendra around the fifteenth century, this lontar contains not only a series of routine religious ceremonies in Bali, but also contains the philosophical teachings that underlie these ceremonies.

    The holidays listed in Lontar Sundarigama are holidays that are mostly still observed by Hindus in Bali at this time. Some of these major holidays are carried out based on the calculation of wewaran (days), wuku, and sasih (lunar month). The Galungan holiday, for example, is listed in the Sundarigama as a holiday that must be carried out according to the wuku cycle. There are also kajeng kliwon, buda kliwon, tumpek, and anggara kasih holidays.

    This lontar manuscript also contains holidays based on planetary circulation, such as the full moon and tilem (new moon’s day). This manuscript specifically discusses Purnama Kapat, when Betara Parameswara does yoga samadi. For this reason, Purnama Kapat (Kartika) is a special full moon for Hindus.

    Other holidays such as Soma Ribek, Sabuh Mas, and Pagerwesi are also listed in Sundarigama. Not only that, there is also an explanation of the types of Galungan holidays such as Galungan Naramangsa and Galungan Nadi.

    In Balinese

    In Indonesian

    Lontar Sundarigama adalah lontar yang berisi daftar nama hari raya Hindu di Bali dan tata cara pelaksanaannya. Ditulis oleh Dang Hyang Dwijendra pada sekitar abad kelima belas, lontar ini tidak hanya berisi rentetan upacara keagamaan rutin di Bali, tetapi juga berisi ajaran filsafat yang mendasari upacara-upacara tersebut.

    Hari raya yang tercantum dalam Lontar Sundarigama adalah hari raya yang sebagian besar masih dilakukan oleh umat Hindu di Bali pada saat ini. Beberapa hari raya besar tersebut dilaksanakan berdasarkan perhitungan wewaran (hari pasaran), wuku, dan sasih. Hari raya Galungan, misalnya, termuat dalam Sundarigama sebagai hari raya yang wajib dilaksanakan menurut putaran wuku. Ada pula hari raya kajeng kliwon, buda kliwon, tumpek, dan anggara kasih.

    Dalam lontar ini juga termuat hari raya berdasarkan peredaran planet, seperti purnama dan tilem. Lontar ini secara khusus membahas mengenai Purnama Kapat, saat di mana Betara Parameswara melakukan yoga samadi. Karena itulah, Purnama Kapat (Kartika) menjadi purnama yang spesial bagi umat Hindu.

    Hari raya lain seperti Soma Ribek, Sabuh Mas, dan Pagerwesi juga dicantumkan dalam Sundarigama. Tidak hanya itu, ada pula penjelasan mengenai jenis-jenis hari raya Galungan seperti Galungan Naramangsa dan Galungan Nadi.

    Direct transcription/translation


    Bahasa Kawi/Kuno

    iki kadrestyaning pakrittigama lumaksakena ling ira sang hyang suksma licin, ri sawateking purohita kabeh, maka drestaning praja mandala, wenang warah-warah kramanya ri sira kawisesang rat, wenang kalaksanan dening wwang sapraja mandala kabeh, nimittaning dresta prajanira sri haji, tekeng kajagatanika, apan parikramaning dahat suksma uttama, iki tinarima puja gamanya de watek dewata kabeh, wiyoga dera sang hyang tiga wisesa, brahma wisnu iswara pinuja dening watek maharsing langit, winastu de ra sanghyang siwa dharma, andhyata kalinganya nahanta ling bhatara. Om ranak sira purohita makabehan siwa sogata, rengen warahkwa ri kitanaku, an linging aji sundarigama.

    In English

    This is the tradition on certain holidays when carrying out religious ceremonies. These are the words of Sang Hyang Suksma Licin to the purohitas (priests) for the welfare of the society. These rules and regulations should be conveyed to those who hold the reins of government in the world (Bali), and must be carried out by everyone under his control so that the king’s territory is safe and a prosperous society can be achieved due to carrying out the pious things. All of this was accepted by the gods, as well as by Sanghyang Tiga Wisesa, namely Brahma, Wisnu and Iswara who were also sent by Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (Shiwa) to carry out dharma. Thus the order of Bhatara, O my sons, all purohitas of Siwa-Sogata (Shiva and Buddha saints), listen to my words written in this Sundarigama book.

    In Balinese

    In Indonesian

    Inilah kebiasaan pada hari-hari suci tertentu tatkala akan melaksanakan upacara keagamaan. Ini adalah sabda Sang Hyang Suksma Licin kepada para purohita demi kesejahteraan jagat raya. Tata aturan ini hendaknya disampaikan kepada beliau yang memegang tampuk pemerintahan di dunia (Bali), serta harus dilaksanakan oleh semua orang yang ada di bawah kekuasaannya supaya aman wilayah sang raja sehingga mencapai masyarakat makmur sejahtera karena melaksanakan hal-hal yang utama. Semua ini diterima oleh para dewa, demikian pula oleh Sanghyang Tiga Wisesa, yakni Brahma, Wisnu dan Iswara yang juga diutus oleh Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa (Siwa) untuk melaksanakan dharma. Demikian perintah Bhatara, Wahai putra-putraku semua purohita Siwa-Sogata (orang-orang suci Siwa dan Budha) dengarlah sabdaku ini yang termuat dalam kitab Sundarigama.

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